An employee-in-training is an individual who is not a matriculated student and who is appointed primarily for the pursuit of advanced study or research, usually at the postdoctoral level. Coincidental benefit accruing to the University or granting agency as a result of the appointee’s activities does not preclude such an appointment. The work of individuals appointed to these titles should be independent or self-directed, subject only to such supervision as might be given by a teacher to a student. Such work should be contrasted with duties assigned under the direct supervision and control of the employer primarily for the benefit of the University or granting agency. The appropriate titles for employees-in-training are as follows.